fact sheets



The immune-inflammatory response of oligodendrocytes in a murine model of preterm white matter injury: the role of TLR3 activation

Marta Boccazzi, Juliette Van Steenwinckel, Anne-Laure Schang, Valérie Faivre, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Cindy Bokobza, Zsolt Csaba, Claudia Verderio, Marta Fumagalli, Shyamala Mani and Pierre Gressens

Cell Death Dis 12, 166 (2021);

Received: 2 June 2020 / Revised: 13 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 January 2021 / Available online: 8 February 2021

This study focused on toll-like receptor-3, a protein activated by double-strand RNA, which promotes neuroinflammation. The aim was to better understand its expression and role in oligodendrocytes (one of the last types of cell to form in the brain). The in vivo mouse model mimicked white matter injury occurring in preterm babies.

Therapeutic potential of stem cells for preterm infant brain damage: can we move from the heterogeneity of preclinical and clinical studies to established therapeutics?

Sofia Passera, Marta Boccazzi, Cindy Bokobza, Valerie Faivre, Fabio Mosca, Juliette Van Steenwinckel, Monica Fumagalli, Pierre Gressens and Bobbi Fleiss

Biochemical Pharmacology 2021, 114461;

Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Available online: 8 February 2021

In this review, the researchers summarise and discuss preclinical and clinical investigations which have studied stem cells as an effective neuroprotectant for perinatal brain injury.


Microglia-Mediated Neurodegeneration in Perinatal Brain Injuries

Bobbi Fleiss, Juliette Van Steenwinckel, Cindy Bokobza, Isabelle K. Shearer, Emily Ross-Munro and Pierre Gressens

Biomolecules 2021, 11(1), 99;

Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021

This review looks at strategies developed experimentally to modulate microglia and reduce brain injury in babies. It focusses on four causes of perinatal brain injury which occur frequently in both westernised and emerging countries, including EoP and neonatal stroke, and reviews pharmacological approaches as well as novel nanoparticle mediated therapies.

Preterm Brain Injury, Antenatal Triggers, and Therapeutics: Timing Is Key

Daan R.M.G. Ophelders, Ruth Gussenhoven, Luise Klein, Reint K. Jellema, Rob J.J. Westerlaken, Matthias C. Hütten, Jeroen Vermeulen, Guido Wassink, Alistair J. Gunn and Tim G.A.M. Wolfs

Cells 20209(8), 1871;
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 5 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
This review underlines the importance of employing the right combination of interventions at the right time to support optimal neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Cortical Gray Matter Injury in Encephalopathy of Prematurity: Link to Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Bobbi Fleiss, Pierre Gressens and Helen B. Stolp

Front. Neurol. 2020, 11:575;
Received: 7 April 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 14 July 2020